RSD-10 Pioner (SS-20) deployment

 

The RSD-10 Pioner was an intermediate-range ballistic missile intended to replace the older R-12 (SS-4) and R-14 (SS-5) missiles. The missile was developed by Alexander Nadiradze (Moscow Institute of Thermal Technology), and was based on the last two stages of the RT-21 (15Zh42) Temp-2S (SS-16) missile. 25 15P645/645K flight tests from Kapustin Yar between 21.9.74 and 9.1.76 (24 successful and one partial successful). The launch vehicle was the MAZ-547V.

Variants:

15P645 Pioner: Original missile, also called RT-21M (NATO: SS-20 mod. 1 Saber). One warhead (1 MT). MAZ-547V launch vehicle. Accuracy 550m. Range (min. - max.): 600 to 4583 km.

15P645K Pioner-K: Also also called RT-21M (NATO: SS-20 mod. 1 Saber). Three 15F453 warheads (150 KT each). MAZ-547V launch vehicle. Accuracy 550m. Range (min. - max.): 600 to 4583 km.

15P653 Pioner-UTKKh. (NATO: SS-20 mod. 2 Saber). Three 15F452 warheads (150 KT each). MAZ-547V launch vehicle. Improved accuracy (450m), warheads could now be spread over a larger area (100+ km), increased range: 600 to 5500 km. 10 flight tests from Kapustin Yar between 10.8.79 and 14.8.80, all successful.

15P566 Gorn. Similar to the Pioner-UTKKh. MAZ-547V launch vehicle. Instead of warheads carried the 15B216 radio command special package, as part of the Soviet Dead Hand nuclear control system.

15P157 Pioner-3 (NATO: SS-X-28, later SS-20 mod. 3 Saber). Three 15F452 warheads (150 KT each) and decoys. New launch vehicle MAZ-7916. Improved accuracy (150m). Normal range was 5500 km, but could be increased to over 7000km with a single light-weight 50 KT warhead. Flight tests began 1986, but abandoned 1988. Precursor for the planned Pioner-4 missile.

Pioner missiles were built at the Votkinsk Machine Building Plant, Votkinsk, Udmurtskaya ASSR (57 02 15N, 54 08 31E).

MAZ-547/7916 launch vehicles were built at the Barrikady Plant, Volgograd, Volgograd Oblast (48 46 41N, 44 35 09E).

Typical regiment organisation:

A typical regiment consisted of the following:

Chronological deployment history:

1976:

30.08.76 the 396th Missile Regiment at Petrikov, Gomel Oblast (33rd Guards Missile Division) went on alert duty with six 15P645 Pioner missiles.

20.11.76 the 775th Missile Regiment at Drovyanaya, Chita Oblast (4th Missile Division) went on alert duty with six 15P645 Pioner missiles.

17.12.76 the 369th Guards Missile Regiment at Zhitkovichi, Gomel Oblast (33rd Guards Missile Division) went on alert duty with six 15P645 Pioner missiles.

By the end of 1976 there were 18 15P645 Pioner missiles operational.

1977:

During 1977 two regiments (396th and 369th Guards) went off alert duty, and began conversion to the 15P645K Pioner-K missile.

00.00.77 the 396th Missile Regiment at Petrikov, Gomel Oblast (33rd Guards Missile Division) went on alert duty with nine 15P645K Pioner-K missiles.

00.00.77 the 369th Guards Missile Regiment at Zhitkovichi, Gomel Oblast (33rd Guards Missile Division) went on alert duty with nine 15P645K Pioner-K missiles.

00.09.77 the 697th Missile Regiment at Drovyanaya, Chita Oblast (4th Missile Division) went on alert duty with nine 15P645K Pioner-K missiles.

28.10.77 the 382nd Guards Missile Regiment at Novosibirsk, Novosibirsk Oblast (39th Guards Missile Division) went on alert duty with nine 15P645K Pioner-K missiles.

13.12.77 the 346th Guards Missile Regiment at Postavy, Vitebsk Oblast (32nd Missile Division) went on alert duty with nine 15P645K Pioner-K missiles.

25.12.77 the 398th Missile Regiment at Kozenki, Gomel Oblast (33rd Guards Missile Division) went on alert duty with nine 15P645K Pioner-K missiles.

By the end of 1977 there were 6 15P645 Pioner and 54 15P645K Pioner-K missiles operational.

1978:

10.10.78 the 826th Guards Missile Regiment at Novosibirsk, Novosibirsk Oblast (39th Guards Missile Division) went on alert duty with nine 15P645K Pioner-K missiles.

27.10.78 the 428th Guards Missile Regiment at Smorgon, Grodno Oblast (32nd Missile Division) went on alert duty with nine 15P645K Pioner-K missiles.

03.11.78 the 804th Missile Regiment at Nizhniy Tagil, Sverdlovsk Oblast (42nd Missile Division) went on alert duty with nine 15P645K Pioner-K missiles.

25.12.78 the 107th Missile Regiment at Yurya, Kirov Oblast (8th Missile Division) went on alert duty with nine 15P645K Pioner-K missiles.

By the end of 1978 there were 6 15P645 Pioner and 90 15P645K Pioner-K missiles operational.

1979:

During 1979 one regiments (775th) went off alert duty, and began conversion to the 15P645K Pioner-K missile.

00.05.79 the 775th Missile Regiment at Drovyanaya, Chita Oblast (4th Missile Division) went on alert duty with nine 15P645K Pioner-K missiles.

30.07.79 the 402nd Guards Missile Regiment at Vetrino, Vitebsk Oblast (32nd Missile Division) went on alert duty with nine 15P645K Pioner-K missiles.

13.08.79 the 308th Guards Missile Regiment at Nizhniy Tagil, Sverdlovsk Oblast (42nd Missile Division) went on alert duty with nine 15P645K Pioner-K missiles.

15.10.79 the 304th Guards Missile Regiment at Yurya, Kirov Oblast (8th Missile Division) went on alert duty with nine 15P645K Pioner-K missiles.

15.11.79 the 357th Guards Missile Regiment at Novosibirsk, Novosibirsk Oblast (39th Guards Missile Division) went on alert duty with nine 15P645K Pioner-K missiles.

30.11.79 the 404th Missile Regiment at Rechitsa, Gomel Oblast (33rd Guards Missile Division) went on alert duty with nine 15P645K Pioner-K missiles.

00.00.79 the 720th Missile Regiment at Drovyanaya, Chita Oblast (4th Missile Division) went on alert duty with nine 15P645K Pioner-K missiles.

By the end of 1979 there were 153 15P645K Pioner-K missiles operational.

1980:

12.09.80 the 249th Missile Regiment at Polotsk, Vitebsk Oblast (32nd Missile Division) went on alert duty with nine 15P645K Pioner-K missiles.

20.09.80 the 617th Missile Regiment at Nizhniy Tagil, Sverdlovsk Oblast (42nd Missile Division) went on alert duty with nine 15P645K Pioner-K missiles.

30.09.80 the 79th Guards Missile Regiment at Yurya, Kirov Oblast (8th Missile Division) went on alert duty with nine 15P645K Pioner-K missiles.

12.12.80 the 835th Missile Regiment at Smorgon, Grodno Oblast (32nd Missile Division) went on alert duty with nine 15P645K Pioner-K missiles.

24.12.80 the 433rd Guards Missile Regiment at Nizhniy Tagil, Sverdlovsk Oblast (42nd Missile Division) went on alert duty with nine 15P645K Pioner-K missiles.

25.12.80 the 776th Guards Missile Regiment at Yurya, Kirov Oblast (8th Missile Division) went on alert duty with nine 15P645K Pioner-K missiles.

00.00.80 the 551st Missile Regiment at Drovyanaya, Chita Oblast (4th Missile Division) went on alert duty with nine 15P645K Pioner-K missiles.

00.00.80 the 773rd Guards Missile Regiment at Novosibirsk, Novosibirsk Oblast (39th Guards Missile Division) went on alert duty with nine 15P645K Pioner-K missiles.

By the end of 1980 there were 225 15P645K Pioner-K missiles operational.

1981:

During 1981 two regiments (428th Guards and 357th Guards) went off alert duty, and began conversion to the 15P653 Pioner-UTKKh missile.

26.01.81 the 826th Guards Missile Regiment at Novosibirsk, Novosibirsk Oblast (39th Guards Missile Division) went off alert duty, and began conversion to the 15P653 Pioner-UTKKh missile.

20.02.81 the 306th Missile Regiment at Slutsk, Minsk Oblast (33rd Guards Missile Division) went on alert duty with nine 15P645K Pioner-K missiles.

27.03.81 the 170th Missile Regiment at Minoity, Grodno Oblast (49th Guards Missile Division) went on alert duty with nine 15P653 Pioner-UTKKh missiles.

25.05.81 the 376th Guards Missile Regiment at Gezgaly, Grodno Oblast (49th Guards Missile Division) went on alert duty with nine 15P645K Pioner-K missiles.

25.05.81 the 638th Guards Missile Regiment at Slonim, Grodno Oblast (49th Guards Missile Division) went on alert duty with nine 15P645K Pioner-K missiles.

05.06.81 the 382nd Guards Missile Regiment at Novosibirsk, Novosibirsk Oblast (39th Guards Missile Division) went off alert duty, and began conversion to the 15P653 Pioner-UTKKh missile.

20.06.81 the 76th Missile Regiment at Yurya, Kirov Oblast (8th Missile Division) went on alert duty with nine 15P645K Pioner-K missiles.

21.06.81 the 142nd Guards Missile Regiment at Nizhniy Tagil, Sverdlovsk Oblast (42nd Missile Division) went on alert duty with nine 15P645K Pioner-K missiles.

00.07.81 the 345th Missile Regiment at Drovyanaya, Chita Oblast (4th Missile Division) went on alert duty with nine 15P645K Pioner-K missiles.

20.08.81 the 170th Missile Regiment at Minoity, Grodno Oblast (49th Guards Missile Division) and the 835th Missile Regiment at Smorgon, Grodno Oblast (32nd Missile Division) exchanged missiles, while remaining on alert duty.

26.10.81 the 428th Guards Missile Regiment at Smorgon, Grodno Oblast (32nd Missile Division) went on alert duty with nine 15P653 Pioner-UTKKh missiles.

25.12.81 the 382nd Guards Missile Regiment at Novosibirsk, Novosibirsk Oblast (39th Guards Missile Division) went on alert duty with nine 15P653 Pioner-UTKKh missiles.

00.12.81 the 826th Guards Missile Regiment at Novosibirsk, Novosibirsk Oblast (39th Guards Missile Division) went on alert duty with nine 15P653 Pioner-UTKKh missiles.

00.12.81 the 357th Guards Missile Regiment at Novosibirsk, Novosibirsk Oblast (39th Guards Missile Division) went on alert duty with nine 15P653 Pioner-UTKKh missiles.

By the end of 1981 there were 243 15P645K Pioner-K and 45 15P653 Pioner-UTKKh missiles operational.

1982:

During 1982 one regiment (773rd Guards) went off alert duty, and began conversion to the 15P653 Pioner-UTKKh missile.

14.05.82 the 665th Missile Regiment at Lebedin, Sumy Oblast (43rd Guards Missile Division) went on alert duty with nine 15P653 Pioner-UTKKh missiles.

25.06.42 the 668th Missile Regiment at Glukhov, Sumy Oblast (43rd Guards Missile Division) went on alert duty with nine 15P653 Pioner-UTKKh missiles.

00.00.82 the 576th Missile Regiment at Lutsk, Volynsk Oblast (37th Guards Missile Division) went on alert duty with nine 15P653 Pioner-UTKKh missiles.

30.06.82 the 577th Missile Regiment at Lutsk, Volynsk Oblast (37th Guards Missile Division) went on alert duty with nine 15P653 Pioner-UTKKh missiles.

00.00.82 the 773rd Guards Missile Regiment at Novosibirsk, Novosibirsk Oblast (39th Guards Missile Division) went on alert duty with nine 15P653 Pioner-UTKKh missiles.

24.12.82 the 685th Missile Regiment at Novosibirsk, Novosibirsk Oblast (39th Guards Missile Division) went on alert duty with nine 15P653 Pioner-UTKKh missiles.

By the end of 1982 there were 234 15P645K Pioner-K and 99 15P653 Pioner-UTKKh missiles operational.

1983:

During 1983 two regiments (346th Guards and 402nd Guards) went off alert duty, and began conversion to the 15P653 Pioner-UTKKh missile.

18.01.83 the 479th Guards Missile Regiment at Barnaul, Altaiskiy Kray (35th Missile Division) went on alert duty with nine 15P653 Pioner-UTKKh missiles.

00.00.83 the 346th Guards Missile Regiment at Postavy, Vitebsk Oblast (32nd Missile Division) went on alert duty with nine 15P653 Pioner-UTKKh missiles.

00.00.83 the 402nd Guards Missile Regiment at Vetrino, Vitebsk Oblast (32nd Missile Division) went on alert duty with nine 15P653 Pioner-UTKKh missiles.

18.11.83 the 480th Missile Regiment at Barnaul, Altaiskiy Kray (35th Missile Division) went on alert duty with nine 15P653 Pioner-UTKKh missiles.

12.12.83 the 846th Missile Regiment at Kansk, Krasnoyarsk Kray (23rd Guards Missile Division) went on alert duty with nine 15P653 Pioner-UTKKh missiles.

23.12.83 the 307th Missile Regiment at Barnaul, Altaiskiy Kray (35th Missile Division) went on alert duty with nine 15P653 Pioner-UTKKh missiles.

By the end of 1983 there were 216 15P645K Pioner-K and 153 15P653 Pioner-UTKKh missiles operational.

1984:

During 1984 five regiments (107th, 304th Guards, 79th Guards, 776th Guards, 76th), all part of the 8th Missile Division, went off alert duty, and began conversion to the RT-2PM Topol (SS-25) ICBM.

16.07.84 the 867th Guards Missile Regiment at Barnaul, Altaiskiy Kray (35th Missile Division) went on alert duty with nine 15P653 Pioner-UTKKh missiles.

16.11.84 the 778th Guards Missile Regiment at Kansk, Krasnoyarsk Kray (23rd Guards Missile Division) went on alert duty with nine 15P653 Pioner-UTKKh missiles.

00.00.84 the 24th Missile Regiment at Kansk, Krasnoyarsk Kray (23rd Guards Missile Division) went on alert duty with nine 15P653 Pioner-UTKKh missiles.

00.00.84 the 664th Guards Missile Regiment at Akhtyrka, Sumy Oblast (43rd Guards Missile Division) went on alert duty with nine 15P653 Pioner-UTKKh missiles.

27.11.84 the 15th Missile Regiment at Glukhov, Sumy Oblast (43rd Guards Missile Division) went on alert duty with nine 15P653 Pioner-UTKKh missiles.

27.12.84 the 19th Missile Regiment at Akhtyrka, Sumy Oblast (43rd Guards Missile Division) went on alert duty with nine 15P653 Pioner-UTKKh missiles.

00.00.84 the 103rd Missile Regiment at Chervonograd, Lvov oblast (37th Guards Missile Division) went on alert duty with nine 15P653 Pioner-UTKKh missiles.

00.00.84 the 351st Missile Regiment at Brody, Lvov oblast (37th Guards Missile Division) went on alert duty with nine 15P653 Pioner-UTKKh missiles.

By the end of 1984 there were 171 15P645K Pioner-K and 225 15P653 Pioner-UTKKh missiles operational.

1985:

During 1985 five regiments (804th, 308th Guards (01.04.85), 617th, 443rd Guards (00.07.85), 142nd Guards), all part of the 42nd Missile Division, went off alert duty, and began conversion to the RT-2PM Topol (SS-25) ICBM.

30.04.85 the 403rd Guards Missile Regiment at Ruzhany, Brest Oblast (49th Guards Missile Division) went on alert duty with nine 15P645K Pioner-K missiles (ex. 8th Missile Division).

30.04.85 the 163rd Missile Regiment at Belokorovichi, Zhitomir Oblast (50th Missile Division) went on alert duty with nine 15P645K Pioner-K missiles (ex. 8th Missile Division).

24.05.85 the 56th Guards Missile Regiment at Zasimovichi, Brest Oblast (49th Guards Missile Division) went on alert duty with nine 15P645K Pioner-K missiles (ex. 8th Missile Division).

00.00.85 the 181st Missile Regiment at Lipniki, Zhitomir Oblast (50th Missile Division) went on alert duty with nine 15P645K Pioner-K missiles (ex. 8th Missile Division).

00.00.85 the 432nd Missile Regiment at Korosten, Zhitomir Oblast (50th Missile Division) went on alert duty with nine 15P645K Pioner-K missiles (ex. 8th or 42nd Missile Division).

00.00.85 the 431st Guards Missile Regiment at Vysokaya Rech, Zhitomir Oblast (50th Missile Division) went on alert duty with nine 15P645K Pioner-K missiles (ex. 8th or 42nd Missile Division).

00.00.85 the 60th Missile Regiment at Vysokaya Rech, Zhitomir Oblast (50th Missile Division) went on alert duty with nine 15P645K Pioner-K missiles (ex. 8th or 42nd Missile Division).

27.08.85 the 615th Guards Missile Regiment at Slavuta, Khmelnitskiy oblast (37th Guards Missile Division) went on alert duty with nine 15P653 Pioner-UTKKh missiles.

00.00.85 the 434th Missile Regiment at Kansk, Krasnoyarsk Kray (23rd Guards Missile Division) went on alert duty with nine 15P653 Pioner-UTKKh missiles.

00.10.85 nine regiments (396, 369th Guards, 404th, 376th Guards, 403rd Guards, 56th Guards, 432nd, 431st Guards, 60th) were reduced from nine to six 15P645K Pioner-K missiles.

By the end of 1985 there were 162 15P645K Pioner-K and 243 15P653 Pioner-UTKKh missiles operational.

1986:

00.00.86 the 249th Missile Regiment at Polotsk, Vitebsk Oblast (32nd Missile Division) went off alert duty, and began conversion to the 15P656 Gorn command missile.

26.12.86 the 249th Missile Regiment at Polotsk, Vitebsk Oblast (32nd Missile Division) went on alert duty with nine 15P656 Gorn missiles.

By the end of 1986 there were 153 15P645K Pioner-K, 243 15P653 Pioner-UTKKh and 9 15P656 Gorn missiles operational.

1987:

08.12.87 the INF treaty was signed.

By the end of 1987 there were 153 15P645K Pioner-K, 243 15P653 Pioner-UTKKh and 9 15P656 Gorn missiles operational.

1988:

During 1988 six regiments (396th, 775th, 697th, 720th, 551st, 345th) with 15P645K Pioner-K missiles went off alert duty.

During 1988 five regiments (382nd Guards, 846th, 778th Guards, 24th, 434th) with 15P653 Pioner-UTKKh missiles went off alert duty.

By the end of 1988 there were 102 15P645K Pioner-K, 198 15P653 Pioner-UTKKh and 9 15P656 Gorn missiles operational.

1989:

During 1989 eight regiments (306th, 398th, 369th Guards, 404th, 170th, 376th Guards, 403rd Guards, 163rd) with 15P645K Pioner-K missiles went off alert duty.

During 1989 five regiments (428th Guards, 357th Guards, 826th Guards, 773rd Guards, 685th) with 15P653 Pioner-UTKKh missiles went off alert duty.

00.03.89 the 249th Missile Regiment at Polotsk, Vitebsk Oblast (32nd Missile Division) with nine 15P656 Gorn missiles, went off alert duty.

By the end of 1989 there were 42 15P645K Pioner-K and 153 15P653 Pioner-UTKKh missiles operational.

1990:

During 1990 six regiments (181st, 60th, 431st Guards, 432nd, 638th Guards, 56th Guards) with 15P645K Pioner-K missiles went off alert duty.

During 1990 twelve regiments (479th Guards, 480th, 307th, 867th Guards, 15th, 19th, 664th Guards, 665th, 668th, 402nd Guards, 835th, 346th Guards) with 15P653 Pioner-UTKKh missiles went off alert duty.

By the end of 1990 there were 45 15P653 Pioner-UTKKh missiles operational.

1991:

During 1990 five regiments (103rd, 351st, 576th, 515th, 577th) with 15P653 Pioner-UTKKh missiles went off alert duty.

By the end of 1991 there were no missiles operational.