4th State Central Test Range
4-й Государственный Центральный Полигон
Launch Complex A
The old launch complex A with two rectangular concrete pads were probably completed in 1955, and the first tests began the same year with the R-11M (Scud) missile.
The pads were initially designated North-1A and South-1A, but were later known as pad 1A1 and 1A2:
pad 1A1: 48 41 32N, 46 16 34E
pad 1A2: 48 41 24N, 46 16 32E
The two pads, as well as the associated troop training launch sites 1 to 7, were used to test a variety of short range surface-to-surface missiles, including the various Frog models (Mars, 1957; Luna, 1959; Luna-M and Luna-3, 1963), the R-11 and R-17 Scud models (1955 and 1959), as well as the SS-12 missile (Temp and Temp-S, 1961). The latter was probably initially designated KY-2 by US intelligence, while KY-1 might have been the R-17 Scud. The Toschka (SS-21) and Oka (SS-23) was apparently also tested from this complex.
It is almost certain that the area was also involved in tests of the R-1 and R-2 missiles.
It should be noted that a R-12 (SS-4) and associated equipment were observed on launch pad 1A2 in April 1964, so the pads were apparently also used in MRBM training exercises.
In 1963/4 the complex was modernised with two new large earth-mounded launch structures, 2A1 and 2A2, one of which partly intrudes on the old 1A2 pad area. The structures are rectangular and capped by elevated concrete platforms having large circular holes in their centers. The platforms are served by ramps which form the long axes of the structures, and which are oriented northwest-southeast.
|Artist's impression of launch
Artist's impression of launch structure 2A2.
No missiles were observed on the structures 1964-1969, so it's
If anyone know, which missile were tested from there, if any,
Seven troop training launch sites for field tests, were associated with launch complex A.
The four oldest (site 1-4) consists of a small concrete launch pad (40 feet square) and up to six revetments:
Troop Training Launch Site 1: 48 41 15N, 46 16 21E
Troop Training Launch Site 2: 48 41 04N, 46 16 22E
Troop Training Launch Site 3: 48 40 53N, 46 16 13E
Troop Training Launch Site 4: 48 40 46N, 46 16 06E
Another three (sites 5-7) were used from 1962, and consists of a triangular arrangement of three revetments:
Troop Training Launch Site 5: 48 41 41N, 46 16 38E
Troop Training Launch Site 6: 48 41 46N, 46 16 40E
Troop Training Launch Site 7: 48 41 57N, 46 16 45E
In 1968 a new troop training area was observed (48 42 33N, 46 16 26E), and consists of a support area with barracks, field training positions, and bivouac areas.
The support area supplies logistical and administrative support for Launch Complex A - 48 41 50N, 46 15 43E.
In the early 1960's the area comprised a missile assembly and checkout facility, a possible thermal power plant, a storage section and a motor pool. By 1964 the support area has more than doubled in size and now includes a fenced drive-through building, a power substation, and several new buildings within the administration and housing section.
Instrumentation Sites associated with Launch Complex A